Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Stem Bark of Adansonnia digitata Extract on Blood Glucose Levels of Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats
Summary: Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of methanolic stem bark extract of Adansonnia digitata in Wistar rats has been investigated. Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extract at the doses of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally administered on Streptozocin diabetes Wistar rats. Treatment of streptozocin diabetic Wistar rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose levels when compared with control. The dose of 100mg/kg shown a significant decreased (p<0.05) after 1, 3 5 and 7 hours of extract administration when compared to control normal saline. Also the dose of 200 mg/kg shown a significant decreased (p<0.05) after 3, 5 and 7 hours of extract administration. The dose of 400 mg/kg also shown a significant decreased( p<0.05) after 5 and 7 hours of extract administration when compared to control normal saline. The highest activity resides at the dose of 100 mg/kg with percentage glycemic change of 51 % after 7 hours of extract administration while the other two doses 200 and 400 mg/kg have glycemic change of 39% and 31% respectively after 7 hours of extract administration. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, carbohydrate, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The median lethal dose ( LD50) in mice was calculated to be 1264.9 mg/kg bodyweight. This result suggests that the methanolic stem bark of Adansonnia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on streptozocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of diabetes and others ailments because of the hazardous adverse effect of the current therapy used to treat those ailments using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicine is free from side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic hypoglycemic agents. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In vivo models were utilized to test the antidiabetes activity and important to optimized the dose in the herbal formulation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against diabetes mellitus.
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